15 Multiple Choice Questions


  1. Statements based on the systematic collection of data are:
    a. empirical
    b. dialectic
    c. empathic
    d. false
  2. The goal of correlational research is to:
    a. assess the causal impact of one variable on another
    b. create a snapshot of what’s happening
    c. assess relationships between variables
    d. all of the above
  3. A study of the feeding behaviour of a group of wild monkeys in India would be an example of:
    a. a survey
    b. naturalistic observation
    c. a correlation
    d. an experiment
  4. If income and happiness are positively correlated then a person with a low income would be predicted to be:
    a. not depressed at all
    b. less depressed than a person with a high income
    c. more depressed than a person with a high income
    d. cannot make a prediction from correlational data
  5. Descriptive statistics aim to:
    a. explain
    b. confuse
    c. complicate
    d. summarize
  6. In a ________ experiment neither the researcher nor the participants know which condition participants are in.
    a. blind
    b. double-blind
    c. random
    d. confounded
  7. A researcher is interested in the impact of anxiety on performance. In order to manipulate anxiety, they have some subjects eat plain chips while others eat barbecue flavoured chips. The most obvious problem with this experiment is a lack of :
    a. statistical validity
    b. empirical validity
    c. internal validity
    d. construct validity
  8. A strength of correlational designs is that they:
    a. can demonstrate causation
    b. do not require ethics board approval
    c. can be used with variables which cannot be manipulated by a researcher
    d. are more intrusive than experimental designs
  9. A researcher uses an experimental design to study the effect of music on memory. In this experiment, the Independent Variable is:
    a. music
    b. memory
    c. both music and memory
    d. neither music nor memory
  10. According to the text, which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good theory?
    a. it is parsimonious
    b. it is falsifiable
    c. it is common sense
    d. it is general
  11. Empirical statements are based on:
    a. belief
    b. data
    c. intuition
    d. common sense
  12. Informed consent is typically obtained:
    a. during an experiment
    b. before an experiment
    c. after an experiment
    d. it is not typical to obtain informed consent
  13. Creating equivalence among research participants is vital for:
    a. experimental research
    b. correlational research
    c. descriptive research
    d. equivalence is never vital
  14. A researcher is interested in whether the results of her experiment (conducted in Canada) would be the same if the experiment were conducted in China. This researcher is concerned with:
    a. internal validity
    b. external validity
    c. statistical validity
    d. none of the above
  15. Standard deviation is a measure of:
    a. range
    b. central tendency
    c. inference
    d. dispersion
  16. Generalization is a key issue in:
    a. internal validity
    b. external validity
    c. a double-blind experiment
    d. a single-blind experiment
  17. In an experiment examining the effect of mood on intelligence participants are randomly
    assigned to watch either a funny movie or a sad movie before they complete an IQ test. The funny movie is shown in a classroom, while the sad movie is shown in the student lounge. The most obvious problem with this experiment is:
    a. lack of statistical validity
    b. the IV is confounded
    c. the use of random assignment
    d. none of the above
  18. In an experiment the researcher manipulates the ________ variable and measure the
    ________ variable.
    a. independent, dependent
    b. dependent, independent
    c. causal, spurious
    d. spurious, causal
  19. The more exercise a person takes the fewer medical problems they report. This is an example of:
    a. a curvilinear relationship
    b. statistical independence
    c. a positive correlation
    d. a negative correlation
  20. In a normal distribution most scores are located:
    a. at the high end of the distribution
    b. at the low end of the distribution
    c. in the centre of the distribution
    d. at the extremes of the distribution
  21. Data from a correlational study is usually shown as a:
    a. scatterplot
    b. pie chart
    c. bar graph
    d. b or c
  22. A researcher plans to assess intelligence by counting the number of times participants
    can hop on one leg in 60 seconds. An obvious problem with this is:
    a. lack of statistical validity
    b. number of hops is too subjective
    c. lack of construct validity
    d. lack of significance
  23. A double-blind study is used to minimize the impact of:
    a. experimenter bias
    b. expectancy effects
    c. both a and b
    d. neither a nor b
  24. Correlation coefficients range from:
    a. r = -1 to r = +1
    b. r = 0 to r = +1
    c. r = -1 to r = 0
    d. r = +.5 to r = +1
  25. In an experiment randomly assigned, participants drank wine or water. All participants then completed an anxiety questionnaire. In this experiment the IV was:
    a. the results of the memory test
    b. the participants
    c. the random assignment
    d. what the participants drank
  26. Research shows that the older a person is, the larger their vocabulary. This is an example of a :
    a. positive correlation
    b. negative correlation
    c. causal correlation
    d. partial correlation
  27. Three commonly used measures of central tendency are:
    a. range, standard deviation, median,
    b. median, mode, dispersion
    c. mode, median, standard deviation
    d. median, mode, mean
  28. Dr. Maki questioned a group of 9th graders about their career aspirations. This is an example of a(n)
    a. experiment
    b. survey
    c. case study
    d. manipulation
  29. In an experiment looking at the effect of heat on performance, participants were randomly assigned to spend 20 minutes in a hot room painted blue or to spend 20 minutes in a cold room painted yellow. In this experiment the IV is confounded by:
    a. lack of random sampling
    b. the colour of the room
    c. performance on the task
    d. there is no confound
  30. A researcher asks 250 students (from a school with 1000 pupils) to complete a survey about the cafereria. The 250 students are a:
    a. population
    b. case study
    c. sample
    d. variable


  1. a
  2. c
  3. b
  4. c
  5. d
  6. b
  7. d
  8. c
  9. a
  10. c
  11. b
  12. b
  13. a
  14. b
  15. d
  16. b
  17. b
  18. a
  19. d
  20. c
  21. a
  22. c
  23. c
  24. a
  25. d
  26. a
  27. d
  28. b
  29. b
  30. c


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Introduction to Psychology Study Guide Copyright © 2021 by Sarah Murray is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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