13. Green Criminology
Rather than being a specific theory of crime or criminality, green criminology is more of a sensitising perspective, a lens through which we can view actions and events (South, 1998) that challenges us to consider both harmful and criminal actions as well as the impacts of both actions and inactions not only on humans but on other species and the natural world. Green criminology is also a call for critical change; it is a call for justice in a broad sense, with a wide understanding of perpetrators of harm as well as the victims of such harm. This expanded notion of victimisation includes who or what can be a victim of crime and/or harm, and the environmental injustices disproportionately experienced by marginalised groups in our society. Looking at the role of power through the examples outlined in the chapter, such as the situation of toxic waste and surveillance of environmental protestors, green criminology offers a critical lens through which we can unpack the actions of state and corporate actors, and identify opportunities to confront injustice and implement needed change.