2 Terminology

There are many terms associated with Indigenous Peoples. I have included the most relevant terms in relation to this book below. If you would like more information on Indigenous terminology, please refer to Elements of Indigenous Style: A guide for writing by and about Indigenous Peoples  by Opaskwayak Cree author Gregory Younging and First Nations 101 by Tsimshian Nation author Lynda Gray.

Indigenous: includes original inhabitants from around the world. A term that encompasses Inuit, First Nations and Métis in what we now call Canada (Younging, 2018).

First Nations: traditional inhabitants in Canada prior to European contact (excluding the Arctic region) (Younging, 2018). There are currently over 40 unique First Nations and over 600 First Nations Bands recognized in what we now call Canada (Gray, 2011).

Inuit: traditional Arctic inhabitants (including Canada, Alaska (USA), Greenland, and Siberia) (Younging, 2018) with over 50 communities (Gray, 2011).

Métis: Indigenous Peoples mixed with people of European origin. This may include Métis people from the Red River Settlement and other settlements (Younging, 2018).

Protocols: Indigenous laws that govern Indigenous Nations, typically based in Oral Traditions (Younging, 2018).

Pan-Indigenous: Presents a unified voice for Indigenous Peoples, but also homogenizes or reduces Indigenous diversity (Younging, 2018).


With the above terminology in mind, please realize that Indigenous Peoples are incredibly diverse. This book provides a very simplified pan-Indigenous overview of basic overarching best practices regarding Indigenous information literacy. Each Indigenous Nation has their own unique laws that govern how information should be cared for. Care should be taken when working with specific Indigenous Nations or groups to ensure that specific Cultural Protocols are followed (Younging, 2018).



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Indigenous Information Literacy Copyright © 2022 by Rachel Chong is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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