Part 6: Employee Engagement

Arley’s comments: This is a good start.  You’ve given a definition of employee engagement and have used some headings. However, this section has some serious source use issues. When you paraphrase, you should restate the main point of the piece. Changing a few words around is considered plagiarism and also makes it tough to use our brand voice. Also, this section is a restating of a Wikipedia page, so I would like to see you use a greater range of sources.

Judy’s comments: This is a good start however there are a couple of key things that need to be considered from a HR content perspective: 1. who the audience is for this handbook and 2. the credibility of sources. The audience for this handbook are HR students as well as HR professionals therefore the information should be customized accordingly. For example, providing the history is not important as the material contained in this handbook is for practical application. Sources like Wikipedia are not reliable as anyone can edit the information found there. Since your audience is HR students and professionals, you want to use HR sources for your materials, including for definitions.

Employee Engagement

Employee engagement helps to understand the relationship between organization and employees whether it is qualitative or quantitative. An engaged employee is the one who determined and passionate about their work and takes positive step to achieve goals to increase organization’s reputation and interests. The attitude of an engaged employee always remains positive towards organization and its values. The first concept of employee engagement appeared in 1990s, later in 2000s its become popular in management practice. Nowadays, terms like “employee experience” and “employee satisfaction” are used as synonymous in place of employee engagement.


According to William Kahn’s word for the first formal definition of personnel engagement as “the harnessing of organization members’ his elves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances.”

In 1993,  Schmidt et al. explain the definition of link between the pre-existing concept of job satisfaction and employee engagement “an employee’s involvement with, commitment to, and satisfaction with work. Employee engagement is a part of employee retention.” Smith et al., 1969 “Job satisfaction” and Meyer & Allen, 1991 “organizational commitment”.

Employee Engagement does not have official definition and results of definition are over millions.


In 1990, Kahn’s concept of employee engagement includes three conditions that must be met in order to mandatory: meaningfulness, safety, and availability. On Kahn’s statement of “meaningfulness”, Shuck et al. stated in 2013 that employee involvement is consistent on “contextually sensitive levels of meaningfulness as well as the adequacy and availability of work toward a given work task”. Saka’ (2006) study of predecessors and results of employee engagement make an important significance between two types of employee engagement: job and organization engagement. While, job engagement highlights the passion for the job itself, organizational engagement shows the interest of employee in specific organization.



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