a situational factor/influence on consumer decision making. It is the sum total of all physical aspects in a retail environment that the retailer controls and should monitor to create a pleasing shopping experience for customers.


the long-lasting evaluation (positive or negative) that we have towards people and things.


how we feel towards a certain behaviour.

Brand Communities

represented by people who are “passionate and enthusiastic consumers who are bonded together by their interest in a brand or product.

Brand Image

a symbolic construct created within the minds of people, consisting of all the information and expectations associated with a product, service, or company providing them.

Brand Loyalty

a consumer’s commitment to repurchase a particular brand despite having other options available to them.

Classical Conditioning

a learning theory developed by Ivan Pavlov that is a type of learning done without us knowing.

Cognitive Dissonance

when one's actions and beliefs conflict with one another.

Conscientious Consumer

someone who acts with a heightened sense of awareness, care, and sensitivity in their purchasing decisions.

Conscientious Consumerism

when consumers … act with a heightened sense of awareness, care, and sensitivity in their purchasing decisions.

Consumer Hyperchoice

dilemmas that consumers face when they are making purchasing decisions that involve an excess amount of choice making it difficult or nearly impossible for consumers.


when there are many individuals in a given area which can either encourage or discourage shopping.

Disposable Income

the amount of money we have leftover to invest, save, or spend, after paying personal income taxes.

Disposable Products

products that get discarded immediately after use.


the process of discarding (getting rid of) something we no longer need or want.

Evoked Set

a small set of "go-to" brands that consumers will consider as they evaluate the alternatives available to them before making a purchasing decision.

Extrinsic Motivation

comes from outside forces like rewards or punishments (e.g., getting paid)


a cognitive representation of the desired state, or, in other words, our mental idea of how we'd like things to turn out.

Green Marketing

emphasizes how products and services are environmentally responsible.

Hedonic Needs

luxury purchases for pleasure.

Hedonic Shopping

where customers experience enjoyment, excitement, captivation, and escapism from everyday life.


concept used to describe mental shortcuts.


when a product has major value within the public's eyes through high publicity and promotion.

Inept Set

the products which the consumer considers as a definite outsider.

Inert Set

the set of brands that a consumer has no opinion about, neither good nor bad.

Instrumental Conditioning

the use of either punishments or reinforcements to make the behavior occur less or more.

Intrinsic Motivation

where you find joy or satisfaction in doing something because you want to do it for its own sake.

Lateral Cycling

a more sustainable act of disposal than just throwing something away.


refers to our attitudes, interests, and opinions.

Motivational Conflicts

occur when people experience two goals that are incompatible with each other.


a basic essential necessity whereas a want is referred to as something you wish to have or fulfill.


people who fail to abide the by the laws and social norms recognized by most people.

Observational Learning

a type of learning that occurs when people observe behaviour, responses, and actions of others.

Perceived Behavioural Control

the degree to which can execute a certain action.

Perceptual Vigilance

a consumer’s ability to pay more attention to visual and audio advertisements pertaining to items that are relevant to them.

Post-purchase Dissonance

the term used to describe the unsettling feeling we have after a regrettable purchase has been made.

Prevention Orientation

a self-regulatory focus on goals related to safety, responsibility, and security in order to avoid dangers.


process of turning waste into another form of new and reusable materials.


a pattern of behaviour that is often in a fixed-sequence and repeated regularly and gives added meaning and significance to a particular culture.


describe how a maturing and more compound self-concept becomes organized into different categories of the self.


the tendency to problem solve and be creative in order to develop their innate potential to the fullest possible extent.


how one thinks about a group of beliefs, capabilities, ideals, and aims that makeup of our own self schemas.

Sensory marketing

getting consumers involved in one or more of their senses by touching, feeling, smelling hearing, tasting, and hearing.

Sensory Systems

humans using their senses which are seeing, smelling, touching and hearing in order to make sense of the objects around them.

Social Norms

refers to the actions that we partake in during our everyday lives that are viewed as acceptable within society. They generalize the accepted way of thinking, feeling, and behaving in a way that our groups support.



Star Power

when celebrities have [an effect] on our consumer decision making.

Subjective Norms

the degree of social pressure an individual feels regarding the performance or non-performance of a specific behaviour.

Utilitarian Needs

needs that are practical and everyday uses.


something that is desired, but not truly necessary.


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