11 Past participle forms

Participle forms

Annapurna Madhuri

Past Participle form of verbs

A verb has four principal parts:

  • The present tense – base verb
  • The present participle
  • The past tense form
  • The past participle form

The base verb is any word which shows the action. When these action words show the time of happening of an event, they are called ‘tenses’ Base verbs or root verbs assume different forms in each of its parts. Present participle form of the verb is the ‘Ing’ form of verb, formed by adding ‘ing’ after the base verb. This was discussed in the earlier chapters.

According to the manner in which they form past tense forms and past participle forms, verbs are categorized into

  • Strong verbs: Past tense forms are formed without adding anything, but by changing their body (spelling) are strong verbs. These are also called ‘irregular verbs’
  • Weak Verbs: Past tense form of verbs formed by adding ‘d’ or ‘ed’ ot ‘t’ to their base verbs are weak verbs. There may/may not be any change in the inside vowel. These are also called ‘regular verbs’.

The table given below shows the past tense form as well as the past participle form of commonly used strong/irregular verbs.

Present tense form

Past tense

Past participle

Strong/Irregular verbs

be (is/am/are)

was/were

been

bear (bring out)

bore

born

bear (to carry)

bore

borne

beat

beat

beaten

beat

beat

beaten

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

bend

bent

bent

bite

bit

bit/bitten

blow

blew

blown

break

broke

broken

bring

brought

brought

build

built

built

burn

burnt

burnt

buy

bought

bought

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

come

came

come

dig

dug

dug

do

did

done

draw

drew

drawn

dream

dreamt

dreamt

drink

drunk

drunk/drunken

drive

drove

driven

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feel

felt

felt

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

fly

flew

flown

forget

forgot

forgotten

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got/gotten

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grind

ground

ground

grow

grew

grown

hang

hung

hung

hide

hid

hid/hidden

hold

held

held

keep

kept

kept

know

knew

known

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

learn

learnt/learned

learnt/learned

leave

left

left

lie

lay

lain

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

mean

meant

meant

pay

paid

paid

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

say

said

said

see

saw

seen

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

shake

shook

shaken

shine

shone

shone

shoot

shot

shot

show

showed

shown/showed

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank

sunk

sit

sat

sat

sleep

slept

slept

speak

spoke

spoken

spell

spelt/spelled

spelt/spelled

spill

spilt/spelled

spilt/spilled

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

stick

stuck

stuck

swim

swam

swum

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

tear

tore

torn

tell

told

told

think

thought

thought

throw

threw

thrown

understand

understood

understood

wake

woke

woken

were

wpre

worn

win

won

won

write

wrote

written

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