agrarian empires

human society that relies on a large number of its members producing food through agriculture


abolition of the state and the introduction of autonomous federations based on their common identity, interests and aspirations

authoritarian regimes (authoritarianism)

belief in or practice of government ‘from above’ without consent from the people


the recognition of legitimacy


fragmentation of a larger region or state into smaller regions or states

banal nationalism

nationalism is not a political phenomenon but part of everyday life that is present in subtle ideological habits


leader of all Muslims in the world, historically a hereditary title


an economic system in which private actors own and control property and demand and supply freely set prices in markets in a way that can best serve the interests of society.

caudillo (caudillos)

military strongmen that dominated Latin American politics during the period between early 19th century independence movements and democratic consolidation in the late 20th century.

civic integrationism

embraces a national identity that can reflect a diversity of cultures while viewing the protection and preservation of minority cultures as a private affair and not the responsibility of government and public institutions


places emphasis on the individual and their relation to society and focuses on the importance of personal ethics and morality


the use of conversation or shared dialogue to explore the meaning of something.

diaspora nationalism

nationalist beliefs and practices of those who remain attached to another state that they consider their homeland, which can be imagined


form of government characterized by a single leader or a small group of people who hold power without constitutional limitations.


believing in the principle that all people deserve equality in human relations.


study of ethnicity and nationalism that focuses on the symbolic elements of ethnic communities


the result, cost or side effect of an economic activity that is not a goal of that activity and the effect is generally borne by the public rather than the producer


system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.


predominance of one state over other states


according to classical conservatives, the stratification between certain groups that is required for social order

historical materialism

according to Marx, forms of society rise and fall as they further and then impede the development of human productive power.

homeland nationalism

transborder mobilization used by a state towards ethnic minorities in neighboring states that “belong” to the dominant ethnic group of the homeland state

homogenizing nationalism

fully recognized and institutionalized form of nationalism that provides the principal vector of integration to the political culture of a state


a personas culture or collective identity that determines more of their core self/global self than other cultures they inhabit


the idea that humans are first and foremost individuals, and that the individual has supreme moral value, a key value of liberalism

Industrial Revolution

period of development in the latter half of the 18th century that transformed largely rural, agrarian societies in Europe and America into industrialized, urban ones.


the rejection of equality in human relations.


openness to immigration and cultural diversity while ensuring the continuity of the majority culture, distinctly Québécois in its origins


fairness in the way people are treated


the power to act as one pleases

majority cultural group

conception of ‘the good life’ reflected in the state’s institutions

mass mobilization

engaging and motivating the citizenry, drawing in large memberships and gradually supplanting the personnel of established institutions


a system by individuals characterized by their ability, skill and education (or, in short, merit) to hold power positions

minority nations

nations with both polyethnic minorities as well as one or several territorially concentrated communities that were forcibly incorporated into a state.


affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, deconstruct and reshape their environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation

muscular liberalism

coined by British Prime Minister David Cameron, aims to deliver integration through instilling a sense of ‘common purpose’ which includes the promotion of British values in public schools and ‘making sure that immigrants speak the language of their new home’ (Cameron, 2011)


market socialism based on cooperatives


people living within a political entity (State)

national populism

mobilize members through galvanizing the so-called “people” against the so-called “elites” and galvanizing members of the nation against non-members, foreigners or minority groups, blends elements of nationalism, populism and authoritarianism

national populist

new wave of nationalism, seeks to create new hierarchies of belonging associated with right-wing authoritarianism


political ideology focused on collective action to render the boundaries of the nation


philosophical position that the universe is orderly and alive, much like an organism

patrimonial state

form of governance in which all power flows directly from the ruler

political centre

the median point between the most relevant political polarizations within a particular society

political ideology

a configuration of concepts that describes and assesses the social world with an eye to mobilizing people for action


minority communities that emerge as by-products of immigration


exceedingly idealistic; unrealistic and impractical.


the capacity to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic

rule of law

principle of governance in which laws are known and apply equally to all and no one is exempt from them, including governments.


school of thought in Sunni Islam, according to which the Muslims of the first two centuries of Islam represent the religion in its purest form

scientific method

the attempt to discern the activities by which that success is achieved by way of systematic observation and experimentation, inductive and deductive reasoning, and the formation and testing of hypotheses and theories.

scientific socialism

seek to correct to transform society through pragmatic solutions (rationalist)


ideology that society should aspire to become an egalitarian community and social progress should be made to emancipate people from any kind of oppression

societal culture

a intergenerational community that provides individuals with a set of values, purpose in one’s life, and a understanding of what the good life constitutes.

state-seeking nationalism

also known as ethnic nationalism, prominent among members of a group who seek to build their own sovereign state.


may refer to: (a) the lands ruled by a sultan, (b) the hereditary rule of sultans, or (c) a particular dynasty


the explanation of phenomena in terms of the purpose they serve rather than of the cause by which they arise


willingness to accept moral, cultural, and political diversity

tragedy of the commons

any single individuals decision not to pollute or to overuse natural resources will only result in someone else doing so, making their effort futile and economically harmful

utopian socialism

a set of idealistic currents that seek to transform society through ideal organizations


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Political Ideologies and Worldviews: An Introduction - 2nd Edition Copyright © 2023 by Valérie Vézina is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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