Climate change-related food threats are associated with extreme heat, drought and desertification. As the global population increases from 7.5 billion in 2021 to a projected 9.5 billion in 2050, food security will become a prime global development concern. Food threats are recognized by the human security paradigm because the absence of a proper diet and nutrition can lead to a range of serious health and developmental challenges. Moreover, the victim is exposed to higher risk factors in general and related problems such as lower employment or school attendance. As noted by Sen in his brilliant treatise on capability deprivation, data on income levels do not fully capture the complete picture of a person’s health, opportunities or living conditions.
Egypt is threatened by water scarcity, increasing drought, extreme heat and desertification. Consequently, the nation will be increasingly confronted by food insecurity. A study by the Egyptian Society for Migration Studies noted that, “the decline in agriculture activities due to temperature increases is expected to range from 10% to 60%. The production of the strategic crops will achieve significant reduction by the middle of the century (2050) as the following: Production of wheat will reduce by 18%; Production of rice will reduce by 11%; Production of maize will reduce by 19%. Egypt is among the high potential countries/regions for food crisis during the coming 40 years.” (Hassan, 2013).
The United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization and numerous NGOs have already sounded dire warnings about the immense food security challenges confronting developing nations in the 21st century.