4 A Note on Style & Terminology

Rachel Chong

Throughout this text we follow the most current and specific words for Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Indigenous is currently the term used by governments. In Canada, this encompasses’ First Nations, Inuit, and Métis (First Nations Studies Program, 2009). Within each group – First Nations, Inuit, and Métis – there are more specific terms to denote the specific Nation, community, etc. (Walsh, 2021). In some cases, dated or legal language may be used in reference to historic government policies and documents, such as the Indian Residential School System or the Indian Act. Please note these terms are only used in their historic and/or legal context in this work.


This book follows the American Psychological Association (APA 7) publication manual. However, when curating Indigenous resources APA might not cover Indigenous Protocols and knowledge systems. Hence, alternative capitalization and other features may be noted. In this case, we followed  Opaskwayak Cree author Gregory Younging ‘Elements of Indigenous style: A guide for writing by an about Indigenous Peoples’. Younging notes that “Indigenous style uses capitals where conventional style does not. It is a deliberate decision that redresses mainstream society’s history of regarding Indigenous Peoples as having no legitimate national identities, government, social, spiritual, or religious institutions; or collective rights” (Younging, 2018, p. 77).



First Nations Studies Program. (2009). Terminology. University of British Columbia. https://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/terminology/


Walsh, J. (2021). Indigenous Terminology. Simon Fraser University. https://www.lib.sfu.ca/help/research-assistance/subject/first-nations/fn-terminology


Younging, G. (2018). Elements of Indigenous style: A guide for writing by and about Indigenous Peoples. Brush Education.


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