Appendix B

Learning Theories Chapter Wrap Up (Static Copy)

  1. Which of the following represent stimulus generalization?
    • Monster and Red Bull targeting to teens.
    • Ikea’s “kitchen” sales event.
    • Mercedes advertising to wealthy professionals.
    • Origins skin care launching a product line for men.
  2. Fill in the blanks:
    • [Operant conditioning] also known as Instrumental condition involves [positive] and [negative] reinforcements. This learning theory is based on rewards and [punishments] and is common in marketing and consumer purchasing situations. The purpose is to reward brand [loyalty] so consumers are less tempted to purchase from the competition. Examples of positive reinforcement include [discounts] and [rewards programs]. Negative reinforcement on the other hand involve [avoiding] negative consequences. [No down payment] is a good example of this.
  3. Fill in the blanks:
    • [Sensory memory] permits storage of the information we receive from our senses. For example, when walking to work you pass by a French bistro cafĂ© and you get a quick, aromatic whiff of espresso and fresh croissants. Although this sensation lasts only a few seconds, it is sufficient to allow you to consider whether you should investigate further. If you retain this information for further processing, it passes into short-term memory.
    • [Short-term memory] also stores information for a limited period of time, and it has limited capacity. This is similar to working memory in a computer; it holds the information we are currently processing.
    • [Long-term memory] is the system that allows us to retain information for a long period of time. Information passes from STM into LTM via the process of elaborative rehearsal. Advertisers sometimes assist in the process when they devise catchy slogans or jingles that consumers repeat on their own.

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